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It was tested analyzing the fundamental frequency patterns of spontaneous speech, read sentences and repeated sentences. The final results showed that the terminal segments were not normal with an occurrence of many very large pitches and many inappropriate peaks even in the production of single lexemes. The read and repeated sentences were fairly normal apart from the terminal segment of the sentences same as in the spontaneous speech. For Blumstein et al. In addition, the authors add that the features found only occur in natural languages.
The next case which is to be presented is a patient of Kurowski, Blumstein et al. It is 45 years old man who suffered a stroke in the front lobe, left hemisphere. The patient was born in Chicago speaking English and acquired some knowledge in French and Spanish, but there was no source for his acquired accent. Therefore it might be subsequent to the stroke.
The results of the study reassure the authors of Blumstein et al. The other tested characteristics were normal for speakers of English. Even the prosody, which in the other patient of Blumstein et al.
Kurowski et al. The authors note that in every case of FAS the prosody and the vowel production are altered in some way. Their patient was a 43 years old female from South Britain who suffered a cerebrovascular accident. This means that her motor centers were affected and she got partly paralyzed due to the infarct. Three weeks after the stroke she was seen by a language and speech therapist and a mild dysathria, long messed up sentences, pragmatic problems and very fast speaking were diagnosed.
Apart from that she gave a few responses in French. Over time the patient started to acquire a Scottish accent. They conducted two different kinds of analysis. So in this case of FAS all listeners of the speech categorized it as the same accent. A test conducted with native speakers of Scottish revealed the same results.
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Intonation was judged to be neither typically for English nor for Scottish, but more Scottish than English. Regarding the rhythm the phoneticians came to the same conclusion. In addition vowels were shorter in the post-stroke speech i. The total system of vowel and consonant rhythm was influenced which may contributed to the perception of a foreign accent. Apart from that, an analysis was conducted for the duration of aspiration in stressed syllable initial position. The duration of aspiration in plosives after the stroke was found to be significantly shorter in comparison to the pre-stroke speech.
This is — as stated earlier — a remarkable difference to the previous cases where prosody seemed to be one of the main characteristics of FAS.
On the other hand this patient does not show some other features known from previous cases of FAS as for example changes in the manner of articulation. As already indicated in the case reports the speech in the case of FAS is not really foreign but simply shows some features which are designated to foreign speech. In the first two cases the listeners could not agree on the kind of foreign accent and suggested various L1s. As mentioned earlier, the segmental features are the stronger indicators to the perception of speech as foreign.
The most consistent finding is in all three cases that there are ongoing changes in the production of vowels in the first case Blumstein et al. These characteristics change the sound of the phonemes, words and sentences and therefore make speakers sound different from the norm which would be expected by a native speaker.
In the case of a real foreign accent it is often possible to distinguish the L1 of a speaker by listening to their pronunciation in the L2. The foreign accent syndrome, on the other hand, seldom allows the listener to be sure about the origin of the speaker as the speech does not really contain features of one specific language, but of many. One might say that this is the case for a real foreign accent, too. S D Sarah Darwish Author. Add to cart.
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The Foreign Accent Syndrome 3. Characteristics of a Foreign Accent 4. Discussion References 1.
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More domestically, the Black Hand are mentioned by Sargento to have taken over formerly civilian industrial locations like the Muro Fortaleza hydro-electrical power plant to provide more power and resources to Project Illapa. Officially as told to the civilians , the project is meant to construct a weather controlling machine that would end all extreme weather, such as tornadoes , sandstorms , lightning storms and Snow storms.
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